The doctor explains to Stephen Hawking that Motor Neuron Disease is affecting his ability to use any muscle activity, such as speaking, walking, breathing, and swallowing. The signals that tell the muscles to move are disrupted, and the result is gradual muscle decay.
Beakman explains that our nervous system is responsible for sensing pain. He uses a schematic to show the nervous system in the body and explains the traveling of signals from the neurons to the brain and back. Lester the rat hurts his tail and there is a slight delay from the event happening and your reaction (about 2 seconds).
Neuroscience can help an athlete perform better at the Olympics, instead of relying solely on phsycial conditioning. It can active muscle memory, so the athletes' body can go into auto pilot and perform its best.
Scientists are trying to understand how the brain forms and processes emotions. They are conducting research on the brain patterns of positive and negative emotions to understand the brain a little bit better.