Hypathia incorrectly guesses how a sack will fall when it is dropped on a moving boat. She observes that the sack behaves as if the boat was stationary. Hypathia believes the same principle can be applied to the Earth: it is moving around the Sun without us realizing it.
Sheldon explains how he uses a toy train and a ball to prove Newton's first law of motion. As the train moves, he pushes a button to propel the ball in the air. The ball lands in the same spot on the train where it was propelled. The ball moves at a constant velocity in an inertial frame of reference.
A fight breaks out, and Isaac Newton watches the quarrel and draws conclusions about forces based on his observations. Each boy is considered a mass, and each of their pushes is a force. At the end of the scuffle, Newton labels his conclusions "The Laws of Motion." This clip is an excellent depiction of Newton's laws of motion in a real-world context.
The Ares III crew successfully rescues Mark Watney from Mars. During the rescue operation, Mark and Melissa spin uncontrollably due to the lack of air resistance and thus friction in this demonstration of Newton's laws of motion.