Amenhotep III asserts his power over Nubia, demonstrated to this day in the form of surviving constructions and artwork. Control over Nubia was essential for the Egyptians because it was a main source of gold.
For the first time Egypt struggles with invaders. The north is conquered by the Hyksos, who arrived via Asia, and in the south by Egypt's neighbors the Nubians. The Hyksos introduced important innovations that would become adopted by the Egyptians, most noteworthy the horse, chariot, and composite bow.