John Green discusses early Islamic history and some of the beliefs of followers of the religion. Like Christianity and Judaism, Islam is a monotheistic religion and has religious texts, most notably the Quran. John some of the themes of the religion: strict monotheism and the importance in taking care of others that are less fortunate. Also, he covers the Five Pillars of Islam: Shahada, Salat, Sawm, Zakat, and Hajj.
Akhenaton's new order and philosophy appear to be settling in successfully. Hymns are written to the sun, the one divine force which Akhenaten's monotheism honors. These will later have parallels in the most important monotheist text -- the Bible.
John Green explains the history of Judaism in Rome. He mentions that the Jews were tribal people of Judea, a Roman Province, and covers some of the characteristics and beliefs of their religion, such as monotheism and the Covenant. He also details traits about the Jews' God, such as singularity and transcendence.