Kramer and Newman hatch a scheme to arbitrage bottles from NY, where the deposit is 5 cents, to Michigan, where the deposit is 10 cents. They can't figure out how to make the costs work; gas is too expensive (variable costs), and there's too much overhead (fixed costs of tolls, permits, etc.) with using a semi to haul the bottles in volume. Finally, they hatch a scheme to use a mail truck, which lowers their variable and fixed costs to zero.
The Stanley Milgrim experiment is a series of radical experiments that test the willingness of individuals to obey authority. Individual variables are changed in order to determine what influences the test subjects. In nearly every case, the fundamental result is the same.
In this humorous example showcasing the gap between the "real world" and theory, Thornton Melon challenges the assumptions that Dr. Barbay poses to the class about starting a new company. Thornton asks questions such as why they are building a factory instead of leasing one and what product they're selling. Dr. Barbay is not amused by his interjections.