Hank explains that the process of meiosis 2 is exactly the same as mitosis, though the goal is different: instead of duplicating the double chromosomes, meiosis 2 pulls them apart into separate, single-strand chromosomes. Like meiosis 1, meiosis 2 has four phases: prophase 2, metaphase 2, anaphase 2, and telophase 2.
Jack describes the ancient climate shift known as the Younger Dryas. He states that, as the world was coming out of the last glacial period, melting ice sheets added so much freshwater to the Atlantic Ocean that certain ocean circulation patterns shut down. Since thermohaline circulation is a major source of heat for the surfaces of continents, the globe was plunged back into an ice age.