The applicability of numbers is everywhere, and a deeper meaning of them can be found in the Torah. The ancient Jews used Hebrew as their numerical system. Maximillian Cohen then goes on to describe the golden ratio and Fibonacci Sequence.
In this clip, Charlie helps Don to find the terrorist behind the recreations by breaking the codes, which contain statistics of the wrecks occurred in the past. The art of breaking codes by analyzing patterns is part of a wider mathematical area called Cryptography.
Henry Weston is interviewing for an accountant position, and as a first test, Mr. Magorium asks him to recite the 11th through the 16th numbers in the Fibonacci sequence. He correctly lists the 11th through 15th numbers, and both characters seem to overlook that he missed the 16th number, 987.