Charlie explains, at a high level, how prime numbers are used in modern encryption. He mentions that solving the Riemann Hypothesis could help decrypt current present day encryption, unlocking passwords and bank account information.
The team tests the black box and discovers that it can decrypt data from any encrypted governmental system. One of the members of the group explains that encryption is reliant on complex mathematical computations, and the black box can somehow solve them without an encryption key.
In this clip, Charlie tries to identify a crimal via the car keys in her purse. Car keys use a mathematical algorithm to send a different n digit number each time the button is pressed, which the locking mechanism can identify as right or wrong.