Hank explains the properties of Carbon and its flexible bonding criteria, which allows it to bond with essentially any other element. He also mentions that Carbon is the core atom of living structures and explains why this is the case.
Tom Green explains the covalent bonds between carbon and methane, and he represents them using a Lewis Dot Structure. Tom then explains how to read the structure. He also gives some background information on Gilbert Lewis, the creator of the Lewis Dot structure and one of the most influential chemists in history.
Ionic bonding is a type of chemical bond that involves the attraction between oppositely charged ions. Unlike covalent bonds, ionic bonds do not share electrons; instead, they donate or accept electrons.
Hank explains diffusion and demonstrates the diffusion process by placing dyed salt water (in a sausage casing) in a glass of water. The casing represents the membrane, and over several hours, the salt water diffuses into the pure water. Diffusion ends when the salt content is the same inside and outside of the casing.
Key Words: Active Transport, Passive Transport, Diffusion, Osmosis, Solutions, Hypertonic, Hypotonic, Isotonic, Aquaporins
Hank explains that DNA stores our genetic instructions and illustrates how DNA is structured. He explains the parts of the Double Helix structure and uses a book to put into perspective just how many base pairs are tightly packed in each chromosome.