Charlie explains radiocarbon dating and how it is used to calculate the approximate age of an object. To make his explanation more concrete, he uses an analogy involving a refrigerator and the number of ice cubes in it.
Charlie compares the elevator to a "Chinese Box" - a thought experiment asking whether there is a difference between a computer algorithmically responding to sentences typed it in Chinese and a person who doesn't speak Chinese following the same algorithms as the computer. He explains how it is an example of the Turing test.
The teacher poses to his students the Monty Hall problem, which investigates the probability of choosing a correct answer given three options and the subsequent probability of changing the original choice. The teacher explains why his students' instincts are not correct.