In the wake of Alexander the Great the Seleucid Greek Kingdom inherits Judea. Some Jews are willing to adopt Greek ways and integrate into the Seleucid fabric and others consider the changes an affront and seek to challenge it.
Bar Kokhba's revolt and short-lived independent kingdom is put down by far mightier force than the Romans had ever used in Judea before. The victorious Romans then ban the Jewish people from the district around Jerusalem and even rename the city Aelia, and the entire province Palestine, in an attempt to destroy its Jewish identity.
Examines the cultural confrontation between the powerful Roman Empire and the Jewish Kingdom of Judea as Roman power and influence grew in the Eastern Mediterranean. The Romans are fascinated by the Jewish religion and the Jewish people question subordination to Roman rule.