An attorney realizes he can receive a very large out-of-court settlement with minimal effort on his part. However, he chooses to risk everything to learn the truth in the court case. In doing so, he tries to convince the jury to do the same: act in justice.
Lacienga starts a rumor about Penny at school because "it was fun." The two are about to begin a fight when one of the commentators starts a rumor about Lacienga being romantically interested in Myron. Lacienga cracks under the pressure, and Penny steps in and gives a speech about how rumors can divide classmates, friends, family, and even enemies. She then sings a short song encouraging her classmates to stop spreading rumors.
The Hitler Youth Choir proudly sings a song that conveys the views of the Nazis during World War II. As the choir sings, Nazi officers ransack homes and destroy properties with sledgehammers in what is known as Kristallnacht, a response to the assassination of the Nazi German diplomat Ernst vom Rath by Herschel Grynszpan.
Vincent Van Gogh's brother Theo pays him a visit and encourages him to rediscover his spark to overcome his depression. He calls Vincent an idler, but Vincent is quick to discern himself from a man who chooses to be idle. Rather, he indicates that he would love to work but cannot because of his current situation.
Claire's children, with the help of their dad, Phil, prepare Claire for a debate. The mock debate is intended to simulate a real campaign in which Claire will be asked about her motivations for running for office. The children provide constructive criticism on her verbal and nonverbal communication while she takes the stage.
Gloria, Mitch, and Cameron go out to a Vietnamese restaurant in an attempt to help Lily embrace her Vietnamese culture. Lily ends up making a scene in the restaurant despite Mitch and Cameron's best efforts to convince her to acknowledge her culture. Gloria then discusses with Mitch and Cameron how she believes that her children are being lost to America.
Dick learns to tip but has a hard time understanding why he should pay for good service. Frustrated with the traditional tipping system, Dick proposes a new, transparent system based on merit. While at a restaurant, he places the potential tip amount on the table, and if the waitress does anything unsatisfactory, he deducts from the tip pile. If she pleases him, he adds to the pile.
Two customers of different races get treated drastically different in a supermarket. The storeowners follow the black customer indiscretely and urge him to make a purchase. Meanwhile, the storeowners have no suspicions of the actual culprit, a white man.
United States Constitution →
A lawyer reminds the jury to not let their personal stance on an issue affect the ability of others to enjoy a product or service. He urges the members of the jury to support the freedom of expression and warns that their decision could place unnecessary restrictions on the citizens' first amendment rights.
World History →
Chinese History →
Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution
A couple gets married during the Cultural Revolution in China. They begin the ceremony by paying respect to their communist leader, Mao Zedong. Afterwards, they sing a song in which they share their experience living under Mao's leadership. The song is laced with strong communist ideals, demonstrating the influence that the regime had on the people of China.
Amir reads a touching letter from his old friend, Hassan. In the letter, Hassan shares the current state of his life along with the hopes and dreams he has for himself and his son. Hassan ends with a hope that Amir will soon visit the land of their childhood because there, an old faithful friend awaits him.
Jim Garrison talks to a jury during the trial of Clay Shaw and urges it to pursue the path of truth and justice. He states that truth is a threat to power and that justice does not come automatically; it is up to human beings to create justice. Jim reminds the jury of its democratic principles and recalls the famous quote by John F. Kennedy, "Ask not what your country can do for you, but what you can do for your country."
Jasmine gives an apple from a fruit stand to a hungry young boy. She is quickly accosted by the fruit stand owner for not paying for the product. When Jasmine states that she has no money, the owner is ready to take violent vengeance. Aladdin sees the commotion while admiring Jasmine from afar and quickly jumps in. He expresses his relief in finding Jasmine, who he claims to be his sister, and hastily pulls her away in order to escape danger.
Double D and Ed attempt to perform Galileo's experiment on the effects of gravity on objects of different masses using a bowling ball and a marble. Before beginning, Double D states the assumption that, when dropped in unison, the heavier object will accelerate first. Then, he clarifies and states that objects dropped at the same time, regardless of weight, will hit the floor at the same time.
Columbus discusses with Spanish royalty his proposal to reach Asia by sailing west across the Atlantic Ocean. Columbus estimates his voyage to be 7 weeks long, but the reviewers of his proposal disagree and believe it will take one year. Columbus states that the goals of his voyage are to open a trade route with Asia for economic benefit and to expand the influence of the monarchs, Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castille.
Squints tells the other kids about the legend of the beast, a guard dog that was a ruthless killer. In the story, the beast was ordered to be restrained under a house until the end of time and is dreaming of the time it can break loose and chase and kill again.
Abraham Lincoln vehemently advocates for the ratification of the thirteenth amendment. He states that, by abolishing slavery, it will settle the slavery dispute and set the tone for the future of those currently enslaved and those who would otherwise be enslaved in the future.
Ben proves to Harper that his children learn effectively through his own education system when she claims they don't learn about the world, as they would in traditional education. Ben asks Harper's children to define the Bill of Rights, to which they provide lackluster and simple responses. Ben then asks his eight-year old daughter about the Bill of Rights, and she cites verbatim part of the First Amendment as well as articulates in her own words the importance of the document, drawing a contrast to China.
Benjamin Franklin describes to Sarah and James the new form of government envisioned by James Madison and George Washington. It has three branches of government: judicial, executive, and legislative. Ben Franklin explains the power that each branch yields and discusses the debate among the delegates about the number of representatives held by each state.
Thomas Paine explains to Ben Franklin, James, Sarah, and Moses his new publication, Common Sense, one of the most influential pamphlets at the start of the American Revolution. Paine explains that, in the pamphlet, he explains the American Revolution in a simple manner for the ordinary person and makes the case for total independence from Britain. Paine states that he hopes to change public opinion about remaining loyal to the King of England.
Billy gets shocked when he touches the doorknob at home and discovers that he can produce a static shock by rubbing his legs against the carpet. He uses his newfound power to shock everyone in his home, including his cat, and Grim.
The farm workers gain widespread support in their grape boycott, costing the growers $17 million dollars through their valient efforts. Their goal is to gain leverage so that they can negotiate better wages and working conditions with the growers. Because of the success of the farm workers' boycott, the growers are forced to consider negotiating with them or else risk losing their entire business.
United States Constitution →
Two officers seek to interrogate Cesar Chavez about his possible affiliation to the Communist party. When they suggest performing a search of the property, Chavez stops them by asking for a warrant. He mentions the Bill of Rights multiple times in his conversation with the officers to remind them that his group's actions are protected by the Constitution.
Professor Dershowitz attempts to bring new evidence to a case on appeal and initially gets shutdown by the judge. He states that the judge himself established that a case based on circumstantial theory only stands up if no other theory makes sense. The professor can only show a better theory by presenting it. As a result, the judge grants him permission to present new evidence.
Sunny challenges the class to not advocate for the guilty man, stating that by doing so they are becoming advocates for the crime. Her professor provides a rebuttal and asks if the man really had a fair trial. The basis of the legal system is that everyone gets a defense and the right to a fair trial.
Thrax holds an evil meeting in which he highlights his successes as a viruses. He illustrates that viruses can cause sickness and even be lethal. Jones, the white blood cell, asks if there is anything he can do to stop the virus, indicating that white blood cells (also known as leukocytes) protect the body from illness, disease, bacteria, and other foreign invaders.
Linguini catches Remy cooking a soup that he had started and traps Remy in a collander. Chef Skinner runs in to ask about the soup and is frustrated to learn that Linguini, a garbage boy, is cooking in the kitchen and proceeds to scolds him. The soup, not tasted by Linguini or the chef, is taken by another staff member to a food critic, to the concern of everyone in the kitchen. This is a great clip to demonstrate the importance of formative and summative assessment and the use of each type of assessment in daily life.
Sheldon develops a friendship algorithm based on a children's book and utilizes it in an attempt to improve his friendship with Kripke. When trying to find an activity that is mutually interesting for both of them, Sheldon runs into an infinite loop in his algorithm. Howard modifies the algorithm to include a loop counter and an escape.
Professor Pitkannan conducts a Harvard class discussion centered around the novelty of the United States Constitution and how it prevents the president from effectively being an elected king. Simon, a homeless man and guest, argues that the genius of the Constitution is that it allows for ordinary people to govern themselves and that it is flexible enough to be modified with the evolution of society. He then states that the president is considered a servant of the people by the Constitution.
Colonists rally together to discuss the importance of building their own, American nation to protect their rights from the tyrant that they consider to be the king of England. Some are in support of a war for independence, while others are in opposition. Captain Martin urges them to acknowledge alternatives to war, and they speak to the results of those efforts: they did not work, and the only path to independence is war.
American History →
Declaration of Independence
Congress approves the Declaration of Independence which states that the colonies must be free and independent states. All delegates vote in favor of the document except for those from New York, who abstain from voting.
Jimmy discusses how ads have been interwoven into American popular culture. They first found their home interspersed in television programming, then in popups, and more recently in the news via the Internet. Jimmy states that the nature of ads and their placement have adapted to changes in technology.
Richard and Winnie discuss their individual preferences of tabs and spaces, respectfully, when performing indents. Richard debates that tabs are more precise and create smaller file sizes, while vehemently questioning why anyone would ever prefer to use spaces.