John Green explains the Renaissance movement with a particular emphasis on Greek and Roman influences. He indicates that the Renaissance was a period in which many innovations were made in art, architecture, science, and literature. Religious inspiration was at the center of most work.
Guy of Lusignan surrenders the city of Jerusalem to Ayyubid sultan Salah ad-Din under the terms that none of the Christians residing in the city will be harmed. When Guy asks what Jerusalem is worth, Salah ad-Din indicates that Jerusalem is worth both nothing and everything. Jerusalem, the Holy Land, is important to both parties because their respective religions, Christianity and Islam, were believed to originate from the city. Ultimately, the Muslim armies under Salah ad-Din captured or killed most of the Christian forces, and thus Muslims gained military power over Jerusalem.
Balian takes his knight's oath from his dying father. As a knight, Balian is expected to protect the king and the kingdom as well as follow a moral code that emphasizes qualities such as bravery, courtesy and honor.
American History →
Alien and Sedition Acts
John Adams reads several provisions from the Alien and Sedition Acts and appears concerned at their content. As he reads the provisions aloud, members of the cabinet make an explanation to justify their presence. They claim that the House and Senate feel these acts are necessary for the security of the nation.
This clip illustrates the controversial nature of the Jay Treaty with Great Britain. The United States Congress votes to ratify the treaty, which normalized trade relations with Britain. President George Washington acknowledges that the treaty is not ideal but keeps the United States out of war.
In the midst of a hostile relationship between the United States and France, Thomas Jefferson reads a memo from the French prime minister. The memo states that the U.S. must pay a $250,000 bribe to French officials and issue a $10 million loan to the government before the two countries can begin formal negotiations. John Adams suggests a plan to prepare for war, while Thomas Jefferson criticizes his willingness to wage war.
American History →
Boston Massacre Trial
John Adams defends a group of hated British soldiers at their trials following the Boston Massacre. He contends that the soldiers were acting in self-defense and that they should be judged based only on facts and evidence.
The British read the Interolable Acts to the people of Massachusetts in response to the Boston Tea Party. These acts brought Massachusetts under the control of the British government and closed the port of Boston until the colonists paid for the destroyed tea. The colonists are outraged by these new laws.
American History →
First Continental Congress
American History →
Declaration of Colonial Rights
John Dickinson reads a summary of The Declaration and Resolves written by the First Continental Congress. The Declaration is the colonists' response to the Intolerable Acts and other objectionable actions performed by Great Britain. During the reading, John Adam expresses his disapproval of Congress' approach to the issues.
American History →
Olive Branch Petition
John Dickinson and John Adams dispute the approach they should take to restore their rights that England has violated. John Dickinson believes they should exhaust all peaceful options and convince the English Parliament to restore the rights via an Olive Branch petition. John Adams feels that the only way to restore their rights is to go to war because he feels England will continue to ignore the requests of the colonies.
Kublai Khan, grandson of Genghis Khan, rallies his troops to deliver an inspiring speech about honor. He claims that they are pursuing Genghis' dream of a Mongol Empire and promises that they will be honored whether they survive in the war efforts or die in battle.
Jimmy and Lucy Liu perform science experiments with Kevin Delaney, including making a giant cloud using the power of chemical reactions. Kevin explains each experiment and the science behind it. As they introduce elements such as Hydrogen, Sulfur hexafluoride, and Nitrogen to the experiments, Kevin identifies the properties that make them unique.
The Kratts brothers rush to observe the way in which pandas eat. They highlight the most notable physical trait of a panda: its thumb. They find that the thumb helps pandas eat bamboo, which is almost exclusively their diet.
The Kratts brothers find a golden pheasant in China and admire its beauty. The bird's most notable feature is its dazzling assortment of colors. The brothers watch it in its natural habitat and observe that it stays out of the sun to protect its colors, which help it attract mates.
The civilians of Bedford Falls all chip in to do their part to support the war. They begin their work with organizations such as the American Red Cross, United Services Organization (USO), and the Draft Board. Several of them crossed entirely into fighting the war. All involvement with the war wove its way into normal, day-to-day civilian life.
Starting from the hand of a sleeping man at a picnic, this clip investigates the structure of a cells in the hand and goes into more granular details to the scale at which the makeup of a single carbon atom is investigated.
Scale is illustrated as the viewer is given a center of focus (the individuals who are picnicking) and slowly the field of view expands incremementally by the power of ten. Eventually, the field of view takes the viewer out of Planet Earth and extends to include other planets of the solar system.
Father Flynn coaches the boys basketball team and takes a moment to talk about the importance of cleanliness. He walks around the court showing the boys his nails so they understand that he holds himself to the same standard that he expects of them.
During a conversation with Joey, Ross uses air quotes to indicate that he believes Joey's actions were intentional. Joey states that he doesn't understand the gesture and uses it incorrectly when expressing his regret.
Raven's class partner, Ben, has an unbearable body odor that completely repulses Raven. She wants to tell him that she cannot work with him because of it but has trouble doing so because he flattered her with a compliment.
Kramer has drastically different opinions on cleanliness than his friends. He believed it was critical to be in the shower for an hour to reach optimal levels of cleanliness. Jerry and Elaine get by with ten minute showers and give him a few tips to improve his showering efficiency and technique.
American History →
Proclamation of Rebellion
After the colonists sent the Olive Branch Petition to King George, they received a response known as the Proclamation of Rebellion. John Hancock reads the Proclamation, which declared some elements of the colonies in a state of rebellion. It served as a warning for those who were not loyal to the king and left the colonists less convinced that the king would resolve their disputes with England, leading to a movement towards declaring independence.
Jason uses descriptive writing to commemorate a location that was dear to his predecessors with wistful and vivid imagery. In his commemoration, he describes each of his family members in succinct detail.
King Arthur and his servant, Patsy, encounter a castle guard while searching for knights to join them on their quest. As the conversation progresses, the guard ignores the King's original request to speak with his master and diverts the discussion to be about flaws in the King's statements, including how a swallow can carry a coconut.
Rapunzel interrogates Flynn Rider, who has trespassed on the tower in which she lives. She begins the interrogation by asking him what he wants to do with her hair. By starting her questioning in this way, she sets the premise that he came to the tower for her hair when he actually entered the tower to escape pursuers who were chasing him.
Sheldon and Leonard are on a team against Amy and Penny in a game of Pictionary. During one round, Leonard draws what looks like a chocolate chip cookie on the board. Sheldon guesses incorrectly several times, and the ladies win the round when Penny guesses correctly. Leonard argues that Sheldon should have guessed correctly, and in response, Sheldon fires the criticism back at Leonard.
Mrs. Landingham believes that the President's poor sense of humor contributed to campaign losses in Texas. President Bartlet explains that it is a logical fallacy: just because they lost Texas after a hat joke, it doesn't necessarily mean that the joke resulted in their campaign loss.
During a presidential debate, both the incumbent and the challenger are asked how they will bring jobs back to North Carolina. None of the candidates answer the question; they talk about how important the issue is to them but do not state the ways in which they will bring jobs to the state.
Webber and Bailey interview potential interns, and the applicants illustrate all the things you shouldn't do in a job interview. Stereotypical millenial tendencies are exaggerated to emphasize the poor habits of interviewees.
Molly's mother announces that she will take a job at the factory, much to the surprise of her children. When she tells them that she plans to build planes and assemble war machinery, her children have a hard time picturing her out of her domestic duties. They feel she should be there for them at home since their father is in London supporting the war efforts.
The three world leaders Joseph Stalin, Winston Churchill, and Franklin Roosevelt come together during the Yalta Conference to decide how Germany will be defeated, divided and punished. Each leader has his own special interests, and together they decide on their post-war zones of influence across the globe. The Yalta Conference inadvertently set the rules for the Cold War.